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Banks are a collection of settings used for patches, and optionally performances and rhythm sets. Some banks include waveforms used to create patches. Banks only store settings; they are not used directly. Selecting a patch copies its settings to the temporary area, and they are used and modified from there. If you wish to keep any changed settings, they can be copied back into a suitable location in the user bank, replacing whatever was previously there.
Presets Banks - Patches, and optionally performances and rhythm sets settings are located in preset banks. Selecting a patch from a preset bank copies its settings into the temporary area.
User Bank - The user area contains 128 patches, 32 performances and 2 rhythm sets. Selecting a patch, performance or rhythm set from the user bank copies its settings into the temporary area. Also, patches, performances and rhythm sets can be saved in the User bank.
All JV/XP synths can save data there via MIDI input (system exclusive messages). All models except the JV-1010 allow the current sounds (in the temporary area) to be edited and saved into the User bank. The JV-1010 comes with Sound Diver software so this can be done from a PC.
Temporary Area - This area contains the current sounds. There is room for one patch and one performance. The temporary performance includes the performance settings as well as the 16 parts that make up a performance (15 patches and one rhythm set in part 10). Selecting a patch or performance or rhythm set copies its settings to the temporary area.
System Area - This stores common settings for the whole synth, and any change to these settings are kept automatically. For example there are settings for the patch receive channel, the performance control channel, master tuning, and so on.
Using the JV-1010 as an example:
And here's a diagram showing how it all hangs together: